R550 Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM)

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 39,95 ex. VAT
 48,34 inc. VAT

Breed:  Holstein
Sample material:  Blood EDTA, Blood Heparin, Hair, Semen, Tissue


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Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM) is a hereditary disorder found primarily in Holstein cattle. It is a skeletal development disorder which can result in malformed, stillborn calves or in spontaneous pregnancy abortions. It is caused by a recessive mutation to the gene SLC35A3.

The disorder has spread considerably through cattle populations worldwide due to the extensive use of elite bulls carrying the mutation.


Chromosome: 3

Gene: SLC35A3

Mode of Inheritance: Autosomal Recessive

Also known as: CVM, HHC

Organ: Skeletal system

Sub-organ: Vertebral column


Year published: 2006

Clinical Features

Affected calves are physically malformed and likely to be stillborn, and euthanasia is likely required for surviving calves on humane and/or livestock management grounds. Typical signs of CVM include a shortened neck, protruding tongue, misshapen head and hernias of the abdomen. Pregnancies carrying affected calves may also spontaneously abort.


Omia: 1340

Pubmed: 16344554